Teaching journal installment 2 | Education homework help


EPS511 Human Development and Learning in Instructional Contexts

Teaching Journal Installment 2

The Teaching Journal in EPS511 is intended to provide you with an opportunity to pause, reflect, and integrate your developing knowledge of the research on student learning and the implications for teaching practices.

Teaching Journal


Modules Reviewed

Installment 2

Synthesize concepts and principles: Socio-cultural contexts of learning; developmental milestones in cognition, social, and moral development; motivational processes in learning; peer relationships in the classroom

Modules 4-6

Instructions for Teaching Journal 

  1. Review readings and materials addressed in the three modules pertaining to the installment. Be sure to review developmental trends highlighted in each chapter.
  2. Review discussion postings in the same modules
  3. Select key big ideas and principles addressed in the module materials and discussions
  4. Use the prompts provided for each Teaching Journal installment to aid your selection concepts and to focus and organize your reflections.
  5. Explain the significance of the big idea and principles you selected and their implication for teaching practice
    • In this explanation, make connections among the big ideas, principles, and teaching practices across the three modules addressed
    • Make personal connections to draw original implications for teaching practice
  6. Complete a double spaced, 5 page (approximately) Teaching Journal Installment by the due date provided in the syllabus and course schedule.

TJ-Installment 2

Effective teachers must be aware of and actively consider the many contexts in which learners grow and learn. Context influences learning and learners influence their contexts. Review the big ideas and principles in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and associated module materials. Use the research reported and your own background experience to address the following prompts:

  • Describe some of the wider contextual influences and interactions that impact students’ cognitive, social, and moral development? 
  • What influences or conditions can help or hinder students’ motivation in the classroom? 
  • Consider the developmental trends in social-emotional learning. Describe two or three ways in which you might design your classroom learning environment to scaffold and promote students social-emotional development? Why would they be effective?
  • How can the peer culture in a classroom promote learning for the grade level you plan to teach? What strategies might you use to facilitate peer relationships in the classroom? 

Grading Rubric for Teaching Journal Installments



12 points


9.6 points


8.4 points

Needs improvement

7.2 points

Does not meet expectations


Content – analysis of key principles and concepts

(80 %)

Follows directions; fully addresses all prompts; provides accurate and substantive reflections on the big ideas covered in modules for current journal installment; draws connections among big ideas in module materials; makes personal connections to derive original implications for teaching.

Follows directions; addresses prompts accurately and substantively to focus on big ideas covered in the modules for current journal installment; draws connections among big ideas in module materials to derive implications for teaching

Follows assignment directions; addresses most prompts accurately and substantively; may include partial responses; may omit some critical concepts or implications for teaching in reflections

Does not follow the assignment directions; does not address all prompts; misses critical concepts and implications for teaching covered in modules related to current journal installment

Fails to complete assignment; vague reflections providing no clear evidence of having read module materials related to current journal installment



3 points


2.4 points


2.1 points

Needs improvement

1.8 points

Does not meet expectations


Clarity organization, grammar, spelling, textual conventions


Writing is well organized, clear, and concise; no errors in use of conventions; Include APA format in citing references in text, using quotes, and in reference list. 

Writing is mostly organized and clear, minor errors with conventions of writing; inconsistent use of APA style.

Writing is somewhat organized; flow and clarity could be improved, some grammatical errors; inconsistent use of APA style.

Writing is not organized, clear, concise, or easy to read; no attempt to reference using APA style.

Writing is not organized, clear, concise, or easy to read.


21st-century teaching and learning | Education homework help

Word Cloud


Create a word cloud to demonstrate characteristics of 21st-century teacher, learners, and any other relevant stakeholders using a word cloud tool, such as Wordle, or Tagxedo,. As you prepare your word cloud, consider the following:

  • 21st-Century Student Outcomes
  • 21st-Century Student Support Systems
  • How the various stakeholders use technology in education

Create a 21st-century teaching and learning mission statement to include. Consider the following as you prepare your mission statement:

  • What is the difference between technology use and technology integration?
  • What is the role of state and national standards and organizations when integrating technology with curriculum?
  • What are some methods for integrating technology into content standards?
  • What are digital and media literacies?


Planning a science unit plan | methods and strategies of teaching and integrating science and health


For this course, you will prepare a weeklong science unit plan. Each assignment will scaffold to create the benchmark. Each week, for each assignment, you will be completing a portion of the science unit plan.

The unit plan will be aligned to state content standards, in the areas of science and health (fitness, body, physical activity, emotional, and/or motor skills), along with a minimum of two of the following content disciplines: 

  • Scientific Method
  • Physical Science
  • Life Science
  • Earth and Space
  • Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

Part 1: Title, Rationale, Standards, Learning Objectives, Vocabulary

The planning process, which includes defining the structure and selecting a theme that encompasses multiple areas of science in one unit, is the first step in preparing a unit plan.

When planning your unit plan, identify which concepts in science can overlap from one lesson to another. You could have more than one standard from different areas of science in each lesson.

Select a K-8 grade level and use the “Science Unit Plan” template to guide you through the   necessary steps and components.

For this assignment, complete the following components in the “Science Unit Plan” template: 

  • Lesson Title, Brief Summary, and Rationale: Summarize and provide a rationale as to how each lesson can overlap multiple areas of science in one lesson and the scope/intent of the lesson.
  • State-Specific Standards: List the specific grade-level standards that teach and assess science content areas.
  • Learning Objectives: Write learning objectives specific to your state standards and the lesson.
  • Vocabulary: Include the appropriate academic language and vocabulary that is appropriate to each lesson.

The details of the “Science Unit Plan” will continue to be fully developed and revised throughout the duration of the course, culminating in a complete unit plan due in Topic 5.

Part 2: Reflection

In 250-500 words, summarize and reflect on the process of beginning your unit plan and including multiple content areas of science in one lesson. What do you consider the most important key components of your unit plan so far? How can this process be used in your future professional practice?


Reflective journal | EDDD 8110 – The Art of Online Teaching | Walden University

Write about one learning experience that was positive for you during the  course.

 Why was this academic activity or interaction successful?

 What  factors contributed to your learning? 

Did you witness some of the best  practices from your annotated bibliography readings in the course this  term? 

What role did the instructor play in your positive learning  experience?

 Conversely, think about a learning experience that you’ve  had in your graduate education past that was ineffective online.

 As an  adult learner, describe the factors that detracted from your ability to  grow as a critical thinker. How did this class help you understand  online teaching and learning better? 

What lesson will you carry forward  as an online teacher?


Benchmark – english language arts unit plan | methods and strategies for teaching english language arts


In planning and instructing ELA content, it is important to be able to create a cohesive unit that encompasses various aspects of ELA including reading, writing, speaking, viewing, listening, and thinking skills. 

Part 1: Unit Plan

For this benchmark, you will choose one of the three lesson plans you created in this course to build a weeklong unit plan. Complete the “ELA Unit Plan” template to prepare a weeklong English language arts unit plan. Utilize any previously received feedback from your instructor to modify and adjust instruction to meet the diverse needs of “Class Profile” students.

For the ELA unit plan, include the following components.

  • Lesson title
  • Alignment to ELA state standards
  • Learning objectives
  • Instructional strategies
  • Summary of instruction
  • Differentiation
  • Materials, resources, and technology
  • Formative and summative assessments

The unit plan must focus on integrating the following elements.

  1. Learning activities and instruction integrating ELA concepts on reading, writing, speaking, viewing, listening, and thinking skills that helps students apply skills to various situations, materials, and ideas.
  2. Differentiation activities based on the various cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical developmental needs of students in the “Class Profile.”
  3. Communication resources, including digital tools and resources that are student-centered, provide equitable access, and develop cultural understanding and global awareness.
  4. Formative and summative assessments to modify, adjust, and strengthen instruction.

Part 2: Reflection

In 250-500 words, summarize and reflect on the process of creating a unit plan in English language arts. How does your unit plan help students successfully apply their developing skills to different situations, materials, and ideas? What challenges did you face when trying to meet the developmental needs of all students? How can family and community support the instruction and selected instructional strategies?


Taelln801 – analyse and apply adult literacy teaching practices


TAELLN801 – Analyse and Apply Adult Literacy Teaching Practices

5 Apply and evaluate strategies for teaching literacy skills and knowledge

5.1 Given that you have identified the needs and abilities of your adult learners explain how you would create activities that develop the literacy skills relevant to your learners’ needs, levels of literacy, and learning styles. Provide two samples or examples of exercises that you have devised and relate how they address the needs of the specific learners.

5.2 What are some examples of the numeracy skills that your above cohort would most likely need to develop? Explain how you would devise these activities that would create these numeracy skills and discuss how you would implement them. Provide two samples or examples of activities that

5.3 Reading and writing are two of the core skills that people require proficiency in to communicate effectively in our society. Identify the reading and writing skills a person needs to achieve a level two in the ACSF and provide examples of the teaching strategies you would implement to develop their skills to this level. Provide examples that include plans for

i) Words

ii) Sentences

iii) Texts

The following are the reading indicators for a learner at ASCF Level 2:







Identifies and evaluates relevant data and ideas   from writings on well-known topics.



Employs a variety of reading strategies to locate   and analyze relevant information in a variety of text genres.

5.4 A third core skill is oral communication. Given that there are five levels of achievement in the ACSF, choose a verbal communication skill from each group and discuss what strategies you would use to teach each skill and identify the possible audiences.

5.5 A key core skill is learning. Research has identified learning skills as a critical element of the learning process. Knowing how you learn is essential for success. Identify five learning skills – one from each level – and discuss what teaching strategies you would use to develop these important skills.

5.6 All practitioners need to evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching. Discuss how you would both formally and informally assess the effectiveness of your teaching strategies.


Creative teaching: designing creative and culturally rrlevant


Week 6 – Final Project

Creative Teaching: Designing Creative and Culturally Relevant Instruction

For this final project, you will be a classroom teacher developing a creative and culturally relevant idea, concept, or movement for your school. Think about everything you have seen, heard, discussed, shared, and viewed over the past five weeks. What information stuck out as something you would want to implement in your school or classroom? Was there an idea that you wished you could share with your colleagues? What ideas did you discover that will help your students with being creative while also being culturally relevant? You are going to create a proposal for an idea that you would like to implement in your school. Think about to whom you would need to propose this idea? Your administrator? Colleague? PLC team? For a few more ideas to brainstorm, view this Association of School and Curriculum Development (Links to an external site.) (ASCD) video.

Your presentation can be formatted in a way that is appropriate to your style of presentation. You can write an essay, create a PPT with a voiceover, record a presentation with an accompanying outline (with citations and resources), or use one of the other ideas presented during this course. Included in your presentation/proposal should be the following:

Content Expectations

Part I: Audience and Rationale (2 points): Write an overview of the class/school/target population, including age ranges, grade(s), subject area(s), and relevant micro and macro cultural components. If you are not currently teaching, you may use a prior class, a colleague’s class, or invent demographic information.

Part II: Outcomes (3 points): List the objectives of the instructional experience/idea/concept being proposed.

  • Content or Classroom Objectives
  • 21st Century skills (emphasis on creativity)
  • Cultural competencies to be explicitly addressed with the experience/idea/concept

Part III: Context/Instructional Description (3 points): Describe more specifically how the instructional experience/idea/or concept will be used in order to meet the Outcomes (listed above). Will it include:

  • Creativity – How will creativity be encouraged?
  • Problem solving – Will the activity focus on solving a problem?
  • AND/OR
  • Simulation – Will the students be involved with performing tasks that related to a real-world experience or activity?

Part IV: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (8 points). Describe how and which four (at least) of these will be included in the experience/idea/concept?

  • Maximizing academic success through relevant instructional experiences
  • Addressing cultural competence through reinforcing students’ cultural integrity
  • Involving students in the construction of knowledge
  • Building on students’ interests and linguistic resources
  • Tapping home and community resources
  • Understanding students’ cultural knowledge
  • Using interactive and constructivist teaching strategies
  • Examining the experience/idea/concept from multiple perspectives
  • Promoting critical consciousness through opportunities to challenge predominant elements of students’ social norms

Part V: Creativity/Innovation Strategies (8 points). Describe how and which four (at least) of these will be included in the experience/idea/concept?

  • Encouraging students to believe in their culture-influenced creative potential
  • Nurturing the confidence to try
  • Helping learners find their creative strengths
  • Promoting experiment and inquiry and a willingness to make mistakes
  • Encouraging generative thought, free from immediate criticism
  • Encouraging the expression of personal ideas and feelings
  • Conveying an understanding of phases in creative work and the need for time
  • Developing an awareness of the roles of intuition and aesthetic processes
  • Encouraging students to play with ideas and conjecture about possibilities
  • Facilitating critical evaluation of ideas

Written Communication Expectations

  • Page Requirement (.25 points): The length of the final project will depend on the medium you choose; however, some general guidelines would be 8-10 pages (for a paper) or 8-10 slides (for a presentation), not including the title and reference pages.
  • APA Formatting (.25 points): Format your paper according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Syntax and Mechanics (.25 points): Display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar.
  • Resource Requirement (.25 points): Reference three scholarly sources in addition to the course textbooks, providing compelling evidence to support ideas. All sources on the references page need to be used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.

Next Steps: Review and Submit the Final Project

Review your assignment with the Grading Rubric to be sure you have achieved the distinguished levels of performance for each criterion. Next, submit the assignment for evaluation no later than Day 7.

If you are enrolled in the MAED Program, it is imperative that you keep copies of all assignments completed in this course. You will return to them for the portfolio that you will create in your final MAED course. This portfolio is a culminating project that will demonstrate that you have met program outcomes.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.


Week 1 – reflective teaching

Choose five activities for job-embedded professional development according to Figure 3.1 (p. 70) in Ch. 3 of Schools as Professional Learning Communities.

Write a 350- to 700-word essay explaining how each activity supports reflective teaching.

Include at least five sources, including this week’s readings and videos, to justify how each supports reflective practice.

Format your essay according to APA guidelines.

Figure 3.1 Activities for Job-Embedded Professional Development

  1. Observe other teachers teach
  2. Plan lessons and units with other teachers
  3. Give and receive feedback on instructional behaviors from peers
  4. Conduct action research projets
  5. Mentor new teachers
  6. Coach one another 
  7. Keep a reflective log.
  8. Develop and maintain a professional portfolio
  9. Look at student work together
  10. Become part of a study group

Weeks Reading

The Professional Learning Community: An OverviewPreview of the ChapterToday, a great deal is known about what leads to school improvement and about the change process in schools. In the current literature, there is extensive discussion of the learning community as an effective model for fostering school improvement and general consensus about high-quality learning activities as essential factors in the improvement of teaching and learning. This chapter provides the theoretical basis for an understanding of the learning community as a metaphor for schools and the rationale for the strategies that lead to schools characterized by collaboration, shared leadership, and ongoing learning. The evolution of the learning community in the research literature is explored and an in-depth discussion of the characteristics and impact of the learning community on students, teachers, and staff is provided. The chapter specifically addresses the following questions:What is a learning community?What are the characteristics of a learning community?What is the role of the learning community in an age of accountability?What are the key elements of the school improvement framework for learning community schools?How is student achievement affected by the learning community model?How are teachers affected by the learning community?How do reflection and reflective practice contribute to the building of learning communities?What is a Learning Community?Dr. Karla Brownstone is just beginning her tenure as the superintendent of the Merlo School District, an urban/suburban-type district where achievement scores and teacher morale have been on the decline for several years. The former superintendent had a highly directive leadership style that limited his ability to improve the schools and resulted in a high turnover in the administrative staff. In her initial meetings with the board of education, teachers, and other staff and community members, Dr. Brownstone had shared her vision of providing the kind of leadership that would facilitate the transformation of each of the district’s schools into learning communities. Her ideas had generated some interest among the district’s building principals and supervisors.When she initially toured the schools in the district, the superintendent observed that the teachers in the elementary and middle schools all taught in self-contained classrooms in which the children were homogeneously grouped. In a survey conducted by the district staff, the teachers had overwhelmingly indicated their approval of the manner in which students were assigned to their classes.Superintendent Brownstone found that most curriculum and instruction decisions were made by a curriculum-planning committee composed of central office staff and chaired by Jack Carson, the director of curriculum and instruction. The declining achievement scores in mathematics had recently led the planning committee to implement a new mathematics program in the district. The central office personnel were ready for a change that would lead to an improvement in school climate, more effective teaching, and higher academic achievement in their schools. The achievement data had led them to realize that the strategy they were using had not improved teaching and learning in Merlo’s schools. Dr. Brownstone is now planning a series of meetings with the teachers and staff in each school to share with them the meaning of a school as a community of learners. What information should she include in her presentation?Over the past several decades, the research literature on school improvement and school reform has focused on the characteristics of effective schools and the importance of the principal’s leadership role and behavior (Leithwood, Seashore-Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004; Purkey & Smith, 1983; Sergiovanni, 1992). The metaphor for schools that dominated the literature during this period was the notion of schools as formal organizations. The 1990 publication of Peter Senge’s work The Fifth Discipline led members of the education community to explore new ways of improving how schools operated and the professionalism of teachers and administrators.Senge’s Learning OrganizationSenge (1990), whose focus was on corporations rather than schools, argued that if corporations are to survive, they must change themselves into learning organizations that recognize the threats to their survival and the opportunities for their continued growth. Senge described five learning disciplines that must effectively be employed to build a learning organization: (1) personal mastery, (2) mental models, (3) team learning, (4) building shared vision, and (5) systems thinking. In implementing these principles, people learn from each other and develop more effective ways of doing things. Practical ideas and tools that can be used to help educators apply the five learning disciplines in schools can be found in Schools That Learn (Senge, Cambron-McCabe, Lucas, Smith, Dutton, & Kleiner, 2000).In recent years the school reform literature reflected a view of schools as communities of learners (Blankstein, Alan, Houston, & Cole, 2008; Hord & Sommers, 2008). Transforming a school into a learning community, however, can pose some significant challenges for educators. Building a learning organization requires organizational members to have access to such resources as time to collaborate, ongoing leadership support, information, and ready access to colleagues (Senge, 1994). A lack of meaningful opportunities to engage in learning activities can limit the capacity of schools to become learning organizations (Ingram, Louis, & Schroeder, 2004; Lashway, 1997). In our experience schools typically do not encourage shared thinking; rather, teachers are generally free to make their own instructional decisions.The views stated earlier on schools as learning communities beg the question, what does a learning community school look like? A snapshot of such a school, in which one of the authors served as the college supervisor of administrative interns, follows.Online Resources 1.1Do you want to know more about Senge’s ideas on the learning organization? Read the article Peter Senge and the Learning Organization at http://www.omahaodn.org/Articles/July%202005.pdf. Information is provided on the five disciplines (systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, building shared vision, and team learning) that Senge identifies as the core disciplines in shaping a learning organization.A Snapshot of a Learning Community SchoolWalking about the halls of a New York City high school, I noticed that in many ways this school was different from others. The four-year-old school, which was housed in an older school building, lacked many of the facilities of other newly founded schools in the city. However, I was struck by the fact that the doors to the classrooms were always open and the students and teachers were all deeply involved in learning activities. During my twice-a-month visits to the school, as I freely moved from classroom to classroom, it struck me that an unusual amount of student talk took place in the classrooms. Students felt comfortable in probing for understanding. They freely entered into dialogue with their teachers; students and teachers alike challenged one another’s thinking with their questions. The environment was exciting, and I came to the realization that the students in this school were continually searching for meaning and accepting responsibility for their own learning. I rarely saw this level of student engagement in the other high schools I visited. More often, students were treated as receptacles for information, and instruction was more likely to be teacher-centered and narrowly planned around the state testing program.When this school first opened, the teachers had been permitted to make their own decisions collaboratively about the kind of programs they wanted to implement. The faculty had decided to utilize a thematic interdisciplinary curriculum incorporating a team-teaching approach. Each team of teachers decided on the norms that specified how the teams would work together.The program had been implemented after a year of training. The teachers had selected key staff from another well-regarded school that used a collaborative approach to providing professional development. During the period of training, as they interacted with teachers from the other school, made interschool visits, and learned more about team teaching and thematic curriculum development and implementation, faculty members had come to realize that they had mutual responsibility for their own learning as well as the learning of the all the students on their teams. Over time this approach to teaching and learning resulted in a level of interdependence among the faculty that fostered collaboration within and among the teaching teams. Additionally, faculty members discovered that reflecting on their ideas and activities and making and carrying out decisions were intellectually stimulating and motivating. The decisions they made affected the breadth and depth of their students’ learning as well as how they felt about themselves as educators.A visit to the teachers’ room revealed the same level of interest in learning as I found when visiting classrooms. The conversations of the teachers were invariably concerned with the plans being made for their classes. A bulletin board in the teachers’ room announced various activities planned around teaching and learning issues. Reminders were posted about regularly scheduled school leadership team meetings, study groups meetings, activities for new teachers, meetings of the peer coaching team, and purely social events. With the support of the principal, all of these activities were collaboratively planned and led by teachers.One of the building principal’s priorities is to provide the instructional support that the teachers felt they needed. At the recommendation of the faculty, positions for half-time coordinators of technology, science, and audiovisual and instructional materials have been carved out of the available teaching positions. The coordinators are available to support teachers in all content areas and to provide for or arrange learning resources as requested by the teaching team.The entire faculty keeps its focus on student learning by taking advantage of the available opportunities to talk about and learn about teaching strategies and students’ needs. The principal provides the teachers with available achievement data, which the teams use to plan for instruction. On a regular basis, teachers collaboratively analyze the data from tests developed by the teams to make plans for instruction. The teachers have become socialized to the extent that they maintain open classrooms, which other teachers can enter and observe on an informal basis.All activities are built around the school’s core mission, which is focused on advancing student achievement. Plans have been made for a small group of teachers to meet to reexamine and update the existing mission statement. They will share it with the teachers at a faculty meeting. The faculty will discuss and modify it, if necessary, before moving to adopt the statement. The principal plans to carry this process out every two years, as she believes the mission as stated helps some of the faculty focus.Clearly, the school described in this snapshot has learning as its focus. How, though, do we define a learning community? And what learning community characteristics have become embedded in the culture of this school?Defining Learning CommunityThe term learning community has taken on a variety of meanings in the literature. In Improving Schools From Within, Roland Barth (1990) described a community of learners as “a place where students and adults alike are engaged as active learners in matters of special importance to them and where everyone is thereby encouraging everyone else’s learning” (p. 9). He also explored the role of teachers and principals as learners and the importance of cooperative and collegial relationships as important aspects of community.In Recreating Schools, Myers and Simpson (1998) described learning communities as “cultural settings in which everyone learns, in which every individual is an integral part, and in which every participant is responsible for both the learning and the overall well-being of everyone else” (p. 2). Collay and her associates (Collay, Dunlap, Enloe, & Gagnon, 1998) noted that not only are individual and collective growth cherished in a learning community but also the processes for attaining that growth are valued.Speck (1999), who asserted that shaping a learning community is the most pressing task of the building principal, defined a learning community as follows:A school learning community is one that promotes and values learning as an ongoing, active collaborative process with dynamic dialogue by teachers, students, staff, principal, parents, and the school community to improve the quality of learning and life within the school. Developing schools where every aspect of the community nourishes learning and helping everyone who comes into contact with the school to contribute to that learning community are important concepts. (p. 8)As defined earlier by Speck, members of a learning community are mutually responsible for building the community. Thus building a school learning community becomes the collective pursuit of the principal, teachers, students, parents, and all other community members. To accomplish their goals, community members must carry on conversations about the fundamental issues that influence the quality of the available learning opportunities offered to all members of the school community.In a more recent study, Seashore (2003) and colleagues stated:By using the term professional learning community we signify our interest not only in discrete acts of teacher sharing, but in the establishment of a school-wide culture that makes collaboration expected, inclusive, genuine, ongoing, and focused on critically examining practice to improve student outcomes. (p. 3)They further noted that, with respect to advancing student outcomes and teacher professional learning, how teachers connect with one another outside the walls of their classrooms may possibly be as important as their classroom practices and behavior. The model offers an environment in which all teachers come to assume responsibility for the learning of all students (McLaughlin & Talbert, 2006).What are the Characteristics of a Learning Community?The literature identifies characteristics that are associated with the development and maintenance of communities of learners. Our discussion in this section is based on the work of Kruse, Louis, and Bryk (1995) in Professionalism and Community: Perspectives on Reforming Urban Schools. The characteristics that they identified (Figure 1.1) serve as the theoretical basis for the ideas and activities described throughout this book.A professional community, as identified by Kruse, Louis, and Bryk (1995), has as its focus the cultivation of learning and interaction among teachers and administrators so as to improve teaching and learning outcomes for students and for the school community at large. As a result of extensive research, they cited five elements of a professional community: (1) reflective dialogue, (2) focus on student learning, (3) interaction among teacher colleagues, (4) collaboration, and (5) shared values and norms. Each element is briefly defined here.Figure 1.1 Kruse, Louis, and Bryk (1995) Formulation of the Professional Community