Liberty university cjus 330 ch.15-study questions / cjus 330 chapter


 

Liberty University – CJUS 330 Ch.15-Study Questions / CJUS 330 chapter 15 Study Questions/ CJUS 330 Questions

How much deference (or conversely, scrutiny) an appellate court will afford to the decisions of a judge, jury, or administrative agency in an appeal is referred to as the ____________.

                a. deferential standard 

                b. appellate standard    

                c. principle or review     

                d. standard of review

Which court is responsible for hearing cases for which there are automatic reviews?

                a. trial court       

                b. intermediate court of appeals              

                c. state court of last resort          

                d. federal circuit court   

If a defendant loses an appeal, what is the first step to take in order to file a subsequent appeal?

                a. File a notice of appeal.             

                b. File a petition for a writ of certiorari. 

                c. File a writ of habeas corpus.  

                d. File a motion for appeal.

Which of the following statements is true?

                a. Criminal appeals always involve questions of fact decided by a judge or jury. 

                b. In contrast to the highly deferential appellate review of factual issues, questions of law are reviewed without deference on appeal.   

                c. Appellate courts are willing to second-guess findings of fact made in lower courts.      

                d. Many appeals are “routine,” which means they have the likelihood of succeeding.

____________ errors are defects that seriously affect substantial rights.

                a. Substantial    

                b. Reversible     

                c. Plain 

                d. Grievous

If a defendant convicted in a U.S. circuit court files for an appeal, which type of court has jurisdiction?

                a. U.S. Supreme Court  

                b. intermediate courts of appeals            

                c. state courts of last resort        

                d. U.S. circuit courts

Which of the following are opinions written “by the court” without attribution to a specific judicial author?

                a. dissenting opinion     

                b. concurring opinion    

                c. plurality opinion          

                d. per curium opinion

During trial, attorneys must make timely objections to the judge’s rulings on points of law or the objections will be deemed waived. This is known as which of the following?

                a. mandatory objection rule       

                b. contemporaneous objection rule       

                c. appellate objection rule          

                d. interlocutory objection rule

The ____________ consists of the materials that advance to the appellate court.

                a. writ of certiorari          

                b. standards of review  

                c. appellate court record              

                d. notice of appeal

A defendant who makes a guilty plea on a felony charge, therefore accepting the sentence recommended by the prosecutor, subsequently requests an appeal. The appeal is based upon the failure of the court to inquire as to whether the plea was voluntary. In this example, the error is subject to which type of test?

                a. classic trial errors rule               

                b. reversible error rule 

                c. plain error rule             

                d. harmless error rule

Losing parties at trial have the discretion to file an appeal except in what type of cases?

                a. felony cases 

                b. civil cases       

                c. misdemeanor cases  

                d. capital punishment cases       

How does the role of the appellate court differ from the trial court?

                a. It retries cases sent from the lower court.      

                b. It focuses on the evidence and how it was obtained.

                c. It focuses on how decisions were made in the trial court.        

                d. It reexamines the facts presented during the trial.

The leading causes of ____________ include mistaken identifications, improper forensic evidence, false confessions, unreliable informants, tunnel vision and misconduct by justice professionals, and inadequate defense representation.

                a. appeals           

                b. wrongful convictions

                c. hung juries    

                d. postconviction reviews

Why do criminal appeals rarely succeed?

                a. The appellate court reversal often produces only minor victories for many criminal defendants.           

                b. If the appellate court reverses and remands the case to the lower court for a new trial, many defendants will be convicted a second time.             

                c. The appellate standards of review often find that no reversible error was committed during the trial court proceedings.     

                d. The appellate courts are reluctant to overturn decisions by the lower courts because of time and cost constraints.       

Which court is seen as more conservative with rulings that cut back on abortion rights, condoned mandatory drug testing, and permitted capital punishment for juveniles and developmentally impaired persons who were convicted of murder?

                a. the Warren Court       

                b. the Burger Court        

                c. the Rehnquist Court  

                d. the Roberts Court

What was the purpose of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996?

                a. It restricted the time periods and the number of habeas corpus petitions prisoners file.           

                b. It restricted courts from hearing habeas corpus petitions from convicted terrorists.   

                c. It restricted courts from pursuing all terrorism cases as death penalty cases.  

                d. It increased penalties for those convicted of domestic terrorism         

What does it mean when a case is reversed and remanded?

                a. The case is overturned and sent back to the lower court for further hearing. 

                b. The case is overturned and terminated.          

                c. The case is returned to the lower court for a retrial.   

                d. The case is affirmed and returned to the lower court for further hearing.

What are the two primary functions of appeal?

                a. judicial oversight and checks on prosecution 

                b. error correction and policy formation               

                c. error correction and process oversight             

                d. crime control philosophy enforcement and compliance

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which postconviction differs from appeals?

                a. They may be filed only by those actually in custody.   

                b. They may raise only constitutional defects, not technical ones.            

                c. They may be somewhat broader than appeals.            

                d. Many state court systems limit postconviction remedies.

The U.S. Supreme Court and most state high courts of last resort have largely ____________.

                a. discretionary appellate jurisdiction     

                b. mandatory appellate jurisdiction        

                c. limited appellate jurisdiction 

                d. constitutional appellate jurisdiction

Which of the following has led to an increase in the broader range of criminal cases being appealed?

                a. relaxation of appellate court rules      

                b. increase in the penalties for crimes   

                c. increase in meritorious issues of broader concern       

                d. public awareness of trial rules

How do state courts of last resort and the U.S. Supreme Court help set justice policy?

                a. By utilizing the political associations that come with the appointment of the judges.   

                b. By exercising caution as to how they word their opinions.       

                c. Through their exercise of their discretionary appellate jurisdiction.     

                d. Through their exercise of their experience in handling difficult questions of law.

Which of the following terms refers to the movement in the state supreme courts to reinvigorate state constitutions as sources of individual rights over and above the rights granted by the U.S. Constitution?

                a. new judicial federalism            

                b. rights-generous doctrine        

                c. state constitutional reformation          

                d. restorative representation    

Postconviction reviews are termed collateral attacks because they are attempts to ____________.

                a. avoid the effects of a prior court decision by bringing a different action in new court proceedings        

                b. overturn prior court decision by bringing in new evidence      

                c. affirm prior court decisions by bringing a different action in new court proceedings     

                d. change the way the process was handled in the lower court  

A defendant has been acquitted by a jury of charges filed against him by the state. The prosecution subsequently discovers incriminating evidence that was not presented during the trial. The prosecutor decides to recharge the individual with the crime. However, the court denies the motion for a new trial. Under what rules is the judge basing the denial?

                a. Fifth Amendment protection against double jeopardy              

                b. Fifth and Fourteenth Amendment violation of due process   

                c. Fourth Amendment protection against admissibility of illegally obtained evidence       

                d. Eighth Amendment protection against cruel and unusual punishment



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Liberty university cjus 320 quiz 1


 

Liberty University CJUS 320 Quiz 1

·         Question 1

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is based on the belief that criminals do not have complete choice over their criminal actions and may commit acts that are beyond their control?

·         Question 2

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What is specific deterrence?

·         Question 3

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What was the first prison designed to house sentenced offenders in the United States called?

·         Question 4

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following was a problem with the Pennsylvania system?
I. It had low productivity.
II. It was expensive.
III. It made inmates mentally ill.

·         Question 5

1.25 out of 1.25 points

The stages of which of the following systems are solitary confinement, special prison, open institutions, and ticket of leave?

·         Question 6

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What is the hands-off doctrine?

·         Question 7

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which system was known as the “congregate and silent” system?

·         Question 8

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Who among the following concluded that criminals had traits that made them throwbacks to earlier stages of evolution?

·         Question 9

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which eighteenth-century theorist is recognized as the founder of the Classical School of criminology?

·         Question 10

0 out of 1.25 points

What was the emphasis in the Rehabilitative Era?

·         Question 11

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Who initiated the concept of “good time”?

·         Question 12

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is included in a presentence investigation (PSI)?

·         Question 13

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is a problem with the system of bail as a requirement for release?

·         Question 14

0 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT a sentencing option?

·         Question 15

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which 1987 U.S. Supreme Court decision upheld the ability of a magistrate to confine an offender on the presumption that he or she was dangerous?

United States v. Salerno

·         Question 16

0 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following sentencing options authorized in state penal codes requires an offender to pay a fine or do community service in exchange for a waiver on jail time?

·         Question 17

0 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a diversionary treatment program?

·         Question 18

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is a reason why states have adopted sentencing guidelines?

·         Question 19

0 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT a goal of mental health courts?

·         Question 20

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT relevant for the pretrial diversion program?

·         Question 21

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is an early English term for a jail?

·         Question 22

0 out of 1.25 points

What main factor differentiates jails from prisons?

·         Question 23

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following categories of offenders is NOT held in a jail?

·         Question 24

1.25 out of 1.25 points

In rural counties, which elected official oversees the operation of the jail?

·         Question 25

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which constitutional amendment refers to “cruel and unusual punishment”?

·         Question 26

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT true of jails in a correctional setting?

·         Question 27

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What is the greatest cause of death among jail inmates other than illness or natural causes?

·         Question 28

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which is a primary reason for new jail construction over the past decade?

·         Question 29

1.25 out of 1.25 points

A very large percentage of arrested and jailed offenders make bond and are released within ________.

·         Question 30

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Jail inmates may have only noncontact visits. What type of visitor is the exception?

·         Question 31

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following styles of supervising community offenders emphasizes assisting the offender with problems, providing counseling, and ensuring that the offender successfully completes supervision?

·         Question 32

1.25 out of 1.25 points

The major component of which of the following alternatives to incarceration is military regimentation, discipline, exercise, and hard work?

·         Question 33

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is a prison sentence that is suspended on the condition that the offender follows certain rules and commits no further crimes?

·         Question 34

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is sometimes referred to as “community control”?

·         Question 35

1.25 out of 1.25 points

________ is used only after low-risk offenders demonstrate a good adjustment to supervision.

·         Question 36

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What kind of caseload includes offenders with very high risk or needs?

·         Question 37

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Community corrections gained prominence as an adaptation of which of the following eras of corrections?

·         Question 38

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which type of supervision is typically satisfactory for offenders who pose little risk to the community?

·         Question 39

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT a possible result if the court finds that a probationer is in violation?

·         Question 40

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which Supreme Court case allowed an exception to parole violations by holding that failure to make restitution payments due to unemployment is not sufficient reason to revoke probation?

Bearden v. Georgia

Monday, April 3, 2017 1:37:51 PM ED



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Liberty university cjus 601 quiz 5


 

Liberty University CJUS 601 Quiz 5

·         Question 1

1.5 out of 1.5 points

In her study of community policing (1999), Susan Miller adopted the role of

·         Question 2

1.5 out of 1.5 points

if the researcher is interested in utilization of police services by assault victims, it is helpful to establish victimization with

·         Question 3

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Qualitative methods emphasize

·         Question 4

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The validity of a phone survey may be undermined when

·         Question 5

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A researcher may choose to use several related questions in order to measure a variable, which is known as

·         Question 6

0 out of 1.5 points

A skip pattern is

·         Question 7

0 out of 1.5 points

Questionnaire organization should include

·         Question 8

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Creating clear and meaningful questions are important, but the choices you provide respondents in closed-ended questions are also important and include

·         Question 9

1.5 out of 1.5 points

An example of an omnibus survey is the

·         Question 10

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Ramon introduces himself at the regular monthly meeting of the Fraternal Order of Police as a researcher who wishes to learn about how the organization is structured. He is granted permission to attend meetings and interview members whenever mutually agreeable arrangements can be made. He becomes a regular figure at meetings, sitting in a back row and taking notes. His role as a field researcher is that of:

·         Question 11

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A systematic approach to sampling in participant observational research is

·         Question 12

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Examining relationships is the centerpiece of the analytic process because it

·         Question 13

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Likert-type responses generally ask respondents to

·         Question 14

0 out of 1.5 points

Writing survey questions

·         Question 15

Needs Grading

A researcher is interested in studying illegal drug markets. More precisely, she is interested in examining the extent to which drug dealers have abandoned legitimate ways to achieve the American dream. She wants to use a qualitative methodology but is unsure whether she should use complete observation, participation and observation, or covert participation. For each strategy, write one paragraph in which you highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each. Based on your review of each strategy, which would you recommend to study illegal drug markets? Explain your answer.

Participant observation is the method in which the researcher as an actor



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Liberty university cjus 320 quiz 3


 

Liberty University CJUS 320 Quiz 3

·  Question 1

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which was the first supermax prison in the United States?

·  Question 2

1.25 out of 1.25 points

For which of the following types of offenders has the BOP developed supermax prisons?

·  Question 3

1.25 out of 1.25 points

When treating a sex offender under civil commitment, which of the following is expected?

·  Question 4

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Who are the primary victims of sexual assaults?

·  Question 5

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following diseases is most commonly spread through the bloodstream as a result of drug users sharing needles?

·  Question 6

1.25 out of 1.25 points

For the purpose of treating a sex offender, how long can a state commit an offender to an institution?

·  Question 7

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What dual problem do mentally ill inmates represent in jails and prisons?

·  Question 8

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is a form of incarceration in which juveniles handled by adult courts are placed in adult prisons with no separate housing or differentiation in programming or job assignments?

·  Question 9

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT included in the “comprehensive approach” toward sex offenders?

·  Question 10

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following provide for the management and secure control of inmates designated as violent or seriously disruptive in other prisons?

·  Question 11

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT a part of the usual inmate disciplinary system?

·  Question 12

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What is the process to promote and recognize improvement in the management of correctional agencies through the administration of voluntary standards?

·  Question 13

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT a category of prohibited act according to the Bureau of Prisons policy?

·  Question 14

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What kind of application process is used to determine whether correctional job candidates have issues that could put them in a compromising situation or make them more likely to accept a bribe?

·  Question 15

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What are staff that provide rehabilitative activities sometimes called?

·  Question 16

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following types of sanction used for inmate discipline by most correctional systems is the least severe?

·  Question 17

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT true of the Adult Internal Management System?

·  Question 18

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which administrative function is NOT a typical responsibility of the central organization of a correctional agency?

·  Question 19

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT a type of issue dealt with by correctional agency legal offices?

·  Question 20

1.25 out of 1.25 points

What is the chief executive officer of a prison usually called?

·  Question 21

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT a reason for what many see as the recent demise of inmate culture?

·  Question 22

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following elements is NOT from Irwin and Cressey’s list of good inmate behavior?

·  Question 23

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Who tried to convince officials in the early 1800s that female prisoners should be separated from male prisoners and that female guards should be hired to supervise them?

·  Question 24

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following refers to gang members telling correctional officials everything they know about the gang operations and membership?

·  Question 25

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which prison gang is also known as the Texas Mexican Mafia?

·  Question 26

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is most true of gang members in prisons?

·  Question 27

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is NOT a measure used by prison staff to reduce the number of sexual assaults in prisons?

·  Question 28

1.25 out of 1.25 points

How do most male inmates adjust to incarceration?

·  Question 29

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which category of violent inmate is predatory, calculating, and usually acts violently for no good reason?

·  Question 30

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following actions is NOT recommended by the National Major Gang Task Force to monitor gang members?

·  Question 31

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which department do service staff work in?

·  Question 32

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is considered a benefit of having women as correctional officers?

·  Question 33

1.25 out of 1.25 points

According to the 2003 ACA survey, what was the most frequently cited reason for difficulty in recruiting correctional officers?

·  Question 34

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which best describes the culture of Stateville Penitentiary under Warden Joseph Ragen?

·  Question 35

1.25 out of 1.25 points

At what point in the staff-inmate culture continuum does staff demand compliance from inmates through threats and intimidation?

·  Question 36

0 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following statements suggests prevalence of reasoned staff-inmate culture in a prison?

·  Question 37

1.25 out of 1.25 points

In which case did the Supreme Court rule that a bona fide occupational qualification prohibiting female correctional officers was allowable because of deplorable prison conditions and the presence of predatory male sex offenders as inmates?

·  Question 38

0 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following is true of transactional leaders in a prison?

·  Question 39

1.25 out of 1.25 points

In which Supreme Court case did the court determine that inmate privacy was NOT a valid reason to refuse hiring women as correctional officers?

·  Question 40

1.25 out of 1.25 points

Which of the following prison officers manages resources, acts as a role model for staff, and defines professional expectations?



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Liberty university cjus 601 quiz 1


 

Liberty University CJUS 601 Quiz 1

·         Question 1

1.5 out of 1.5 points

When we want to understand the direct relationship between two or more things, we are using which type of research?

·         Question 2

1.5 out of 1.5 points

When we prematurely jump to conclusions, we are using ______.

·         Question 3

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Analysis of data collected by someone other than the researcher is known as ______.

·         Question 4

1.5 out of 1.5 points

When we conclude what we have observed or what we know to be true for some cases is true for all cases, we have committed this error in reasoning.

·         Question 5

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A social scientist who conducts research on youth violence after first volunteering in an organization dealing with at-risk youth may be said to have ______ motivations.

·         Question 6

1.5 out of 1.5 points

When we want to understand the direct relationship between two or more things, we are using which type of research?

·         Question 7

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Research in which social events of only one time period in the past are studied is known as ______.

·         Question 8

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Research with a focus on women’s lives that often includes an orientation to personal experience, subjective orientations, the researcher’s standpoint, and emotions is ______.

·         Question 9

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Participant observation, intensive interviewing, and focus groups that are designed to capture social life as participants experience it are ______.

·         Question 10

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The belief that there is an empirical reality but that our understanding of it is limited by its complexity and by the biases and other limitations of researchers is known as ______.

·         Question 11

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The everyday error that involves the reluctance to change ideas even in light of new information is called ______.

·         Question 12

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Researchers with a belief that an objective reality exists apart from the perceptions of those who observe it, are conducting research with this philosophy.

·         Question 13

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Surveys and experiments that record variation in social life in terms of categories that vary in amount are likely to employ which research method?

·         Question 14

1.5 out of 1.5 points

If a social service agency seeks better assessment of youth violence so they can identify needs and allocate responsibility among agencies that can meet those needs, we would say that they have ______ motivations to do research.

·         Question 15

Needs Grading

Explain the differences between descriptive, exploratory, explanatory, and evaluation research. Provide an example of each.

Descriptive research occurs when phenomena are defined and described.  It is the primary focus of many studies involving youth crime and violence.  An example resides in studies regarding the specific question of how many people are victims of youth violence or how many youth are offenders.  Descriptive research is not concerned in explaining some phenomenon.  However, it is interested in describing frequency or qualities.

Exploratory research occurs when social phenomena are investigated without a priori expectations to develop explanations of them.  The gold standard is to answer the question what is going on while investigating social phenomena without expectations.  It uses methods that capture large amounts of unstructured information.  An example resided in the study that captured data on the emergence of youth gangs in the 1980s.  There was no data to support research.  Therefore, an early goal was to determine what it was like to be a gang member.

Explanatory research occurs when efforts or taken to identify causes and/or effects of social phenomena.  An example is when researchers adopt explanation as a principal goal.  During studies, researchers use explanatory research to answer questions regarding why people become offenders and if the unemployment rate influences the frequency of youth crime. 

Evaluation research occurs when information is gathered about social programs or interventions.  Although it is a type of explanatory research, it differs because it considers the implementation and outcomes of social policies and programs.  For example, the increase of youth violence in the 1980s used evaluation research to assess the impact of many new government programs. 



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Liberty university cjus 601 quiz 6


  

Liberty University CJUS 601 Quiz 6

·         Question 1

1.5 out of 1.5 points

John Stuart Mill proposed establishing

·         Question 2

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The time series research conducted by Bye in 2008

·         Question 3

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The bulk of the published evaluation studies in criminal justice are devoted to some type of

·         Question 4

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Different cultural and linguistic contexts can limit confidence in

·         Question 5

1.5 out of 1.5 points

When at least one or more elements of a true experimental design is absent, it is known as a

·         Question 6

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Information about service delivery system outputs, outcomes or operations is (10-4)

·         Question 7

0 out of 1.5 points

Using a ____________ sampling strategy, researchers select cases because they reflect theoretically important distinctions

·         Question 8

0 out of 1.5 points

Stakeholders are

·         Question 9

1.5 out of 1.5 points

If you use geographic units such as nations to be sampled for comparative purposes, it is assumed that

·         Question 10

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Once a program has been started, it is important to determine whether the program is reaching the target individuals or groups and to discover if the program is actually operating as expected. This is called

·         Question 11

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The analysis of data that were originally collected by someone else at another time is known as

·         Question 12

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A type of evaluation research that is conducted to determine whether it is feasible to evaluate a program’s effects with available time and resources is known as

·         Question 13

1.5 out of 1.5 points

When a researcher is not able to randomly assign participants to experimental and control conditions, they may use a(n)

·         Question 14

0 out of 1.5 points

Which type of research is the preferred method for maximizing internal validity?

·         Question 15

9 out of 9 points

There are four general types of evaluation research – evaluation of need, evaluation of process, evaluation of impact, and evaluation of efficiency. Write a descriptive paragraph on each type of evaluation research. Provide at least one example of each type.



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Liberty university cjus 601 quiz 4


 

Liberty University CJUS 601 Quiz 4

CJUS 601 Quiz 4

·         Question 1

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A researcher determines whether an association exists between the independent and dependent variables in a true experiment because two or more groups differ in terms of their value on the

·         Question 2

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The list of all elements of a population from which a sample is actually selected is known as the

·         Question 3

1.5 out of 1.5 points

When a conclusion based on a sample of a larger population holds true for that population is known as

·         Question 4

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Using a Solomon four-group design, subjects are randomly assigned to

·         Question 5

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A researcher who draws conclusions about individual-level processes from group-level data is constructing

·         Question 6

1.5 out of 1.5 points

When subjects develop or change during the experiment as part of an ongoing process independent of the experimental treatment is known as

·         Question 7

0 out of 1.5 points

If you complete a survey in a magazine entitled “What Do You Think About the Death Penalty for Teenagers? and mail it in to the publisher, you have participated in survey research

·         Question 8

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The larger the sampling error, the _______ representative the sample is of the population.

·         Question 9

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Rubin and Rubin (1995) suggest three guidelines for selecting informants when designing a purposive sampling strategy. What is one of these guidelines?

·         Question 10

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A true experiment has

·         Question 11

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Samantha asked the registrar at her school to provide a list of all criminal justice majors. She the selected every fifth name on the list. What sampling method did she use?

·         Question 12

1.5 out of 1.5 points

If the probability of selection cannot be determined before a sample is drawn, what type of sampling procedure must be used?

·         Question 13

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A nonprobability sampling method in which elements are selected to ensure that the sample represents certain characteristics in proportion to their prevalence in the population is

·         Question 14

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A source of causal invalidity that occurs when subjects who are chosen for a study because of their extreme scores on the dependent variable become less extreme due to natural cyclical or episodic change in the variable is known as

·         Question 15

Needs Grading

An experiment’s ability to yield valid conclusions about causal effects is determined by the comparability of is experimental and comparison groups. Identify and describe five sources of internal invalidity.

The five sources of internal validity are:

Selection Bias which is the characteristics of treatment and comparison group subjects differ in any way that influences the outcome.

Endogenous Change which occurs when natural developments or changes in the subject (independent if the experiment treatment itself) account for some or all of the observed changes between pretest and posttest.

External Events or history effects is the events that happen outside the experiment can affect the subject outcomes scores. 

Contamination occurs when the control groups is in some way affected by, or affects, the treatment group.

Treatment misidentification occurs when the treatment itself does not cause the outcome but does cause some other process the research is not aware of. 



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Liberty university cjus 530 quiz 2


 

Liberty University CJUS 530 Quiz 2

Question 1

0 out of 5 points In the public workplace of criminal justice organization employees, there are numerous court cases that either hold an employee(s), the criminal justice organization or both accountable for intentional and sometimes unintentional deprivations of a citizen’s constitution rights in the form of a civil tort. There is a specific U.S. Supreme Court case that now will no longer allow the acceptance of the excuse of, “I didn’t know,” in that the justices indicated that in some cases there is a ‘duty to train employees’ to avoid such violations. Many times this case is referred to as the one that ‘opened the litigation door’ for the failure to reasonable train an employee. That case is   .

Question 2

5 out of 5 points Charisma is defined as that personal magic which arouses special loyalty, enthusiasm and respect for a beloved leader. Which of the following powers would charisma be placed?

Question 3

5 out of 5 points

Communication serves four very important functions in a criminal justice organization. Those four functions are emotive function, motivational function, informational function and

 function.

Question 4

0 out of 5 points In order for a public service organization to be strategically situated in its succession planning, personnel must be trained and be able to   .

Question 5

5 out of 5 points In conducing the performance appraisals for personnel the supervisor, manager, leader, etc. must always be aware of certain errors or effects that can skew a well thought out and well plan appraisal system. One of those effects is called the halo effect. It is described below as

 .

Selected Answer:

I got a good one when they transferred this guy to me and he is just perfect and never makes a mistake.

Question 6

5 out of 5 points From the research works of Violanti and Marshall in the 1980s, they identified four transitory stages that a criminal justice employee (police) will go through in the course of a career.

Those four stages are alarm, personalization, introspection and   .

Question 7

0 out of 5 points

The Transportation Workplace Security Enhancement Act of 2009 was intended to

 .

Selected Answer: Give public safety unions more power to organize through ‘card check’.

Question 8

0 out of 5 points Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia and Tennessee all have an overweight and obesity rate at 65% or higher.

Selected Answer: True

Question 9

0 out of 5 points There are three major steps to have a successful performance based management system for a criminal justice organization. Those steps are: 1. Define the organizational mission and the strategic performance objectives; 2. Establish an integrated performance system; and 3. Establish accountability for performance.

Selected Answer: False

Question 10

5 out of 5 points In preparing an organization for change there are many models on the market in both old and new management books. The authors have used the SARA model as a very simple planning process to assisting a leader in taking his/her organizational change move to reach his targeted goal. The SARA model stands for Scanning, Analysis, Response and what other step?

Question 11

5 out of 5 points In reading about interpersonal conflict in one of the current textbooks more than one has been identified. Which of the following is not a type of interpersonal conflict?

Question 12

5 out of 5 points The decision‑making process consists of four specific steps. They are: 1. Translate goals into objectives, and then translate objectives into payoffs and utility; 2. Choose among alternatives; 3. Select the alternative whose consequences have the greatest utility; and 4. _

 .

Question 13

5 out of 5 points When setting up a human resource system where employees are to be hired for tasks to be accomplished successfully, it is necessary that core competencies be established. In order words what do our future employees knew to know already and in what areas will they need training? Of the four following items three will be used to establish core competencies and one will not. Which one will not be used?

Question 14

5 out of 5 points

In groups and teams within an organization cliques can form and several have been listed. Out of the following listing of cliques choose one that was listed in your reading.

Question 15

5 out of 5 points Pay, fringe benefits (health, dental and life insurance as well as 401k and 457 savings plans, etc.) and long term retirement pensions are tools to both recruit and retain good employees over the long haul of an organizational life span. In setting up a full service human resources program, the importance of the properly funded viability of a living wage, acceptable (to the employees) fringe benefits and a secure pension plan are vital to the criminal justice organization’s success. As has been seen in previous years of economic downturn cycles, elected officials sometimes have been discovered to have under paid the full actuarial percentage amounts for pensions and used the monies for other legally funded purposes. Which listed term best describes this new, but yet old, practice by some elected legislative officials and local units of government?

Question 16

25 out of 25 points

Essay (please be brief in stating your points succinctly, but yet be thorough)

One of the key items with which you will need to be familiar in your administrative future are the five types of power within any human resource organization, but more so in the criminal justice world as it is and of itself about the power of the state and your role within it. These will be used for your benefit and yet they may be used against you so it is important that you know and recognize their importance and usability. List the five types of power and define each one. Then explain how and under what circumstances each one can be used.

Selected Answer:

The word power has both positive and negative connotations attached to it. In essence power is the ability, the vigor, and the strength to control one self and others. There are five main types of power namely: Reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, referent power and lastly expertise power. Defined as follows:

Reward power: This is the manager or supervisor’s ability to use rewards and punishment toward subordinates. An example of this would be something small as a compliment (praise or thankyou) or an assignment to a desired shift. Much bigger rewards or consequences would be a raise and or promotion for a job well done. This type of power can be used to boost morale

Coercive power. This is based on fear of punishment, making it the opposite from rewards, which means that it can be problematic and it can also be abused. This power can be used to emphasize, with threats, the potential consequences of a job poorly done. This type of power is used to imply or threaten firing, demoting, or denying some sort of privilege. Thus, this coercive power has the potential of being abused.

Legitimate power: This is typically linked to a rank, role or job title. Thus, respecting rank or title is important. A person may respect the title or the position, but not necessarily the person who holds it. Furthermore, when the person in power loses the position, the power is lost as well. A person will follow the order mostly due to respect to the position, not because they like or respect the person giving the order.

Referent power: According to the text this type of power is difficult to define, because it is intangible. It is the result of how a manager behaves or something in his or her personality that the subordinates likes or admires. This type of power is based on trust between both the manager (supervisor) and employee. This power emanates from a person that is highly liked and seen as a role model. Their communication is open and direct. The key aspect is trust. A word utilized to describe this type of leader is charismatic.

Expertise power: This power is based on knowledge and expertise. The manager or supervisor’s knowledge and expertise brings him respect from his or her subordinates. A manager with a particular expertise can persuade his or her employees, out of respect, to do things for him or her. Thus, appreciation is demonstrated.

In summary, all of these types of powers can be used at different times within an

organization. They all have value based on the situation that they are utilized.



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Liberty university cjus 601 quiz 8


 

Liberty University CJUS 601 Quiz 8

Question 1

A researcher conducts a study on terrorist movements within the United States. Upon completing his research, he petitions to Congress to present his information before them. This researcher’s primary goal most likely is toQuestion 2

“Reverse outlining” when preparing a research report meansQuestion 3

A discussion section:

Question 4

The advisory committee for a student’s thesis project: Question 5

A researcher conducts a theoretical study of terrorist motivations, consulting the work of other major researchers in the field. The research is published in two separate academic journals. This researcher’s primary goal most likely is to: Question 6

Research projects often fail because: Question 7

A researcher, frustrated with the nature of much of academic research, decides to go into the field to conduct his research on community response to crime and gets his subjects involved, taking their input regarding the goals and outline of the research. This researcher is engaging in: Question 8

An ethical research report should include all but which of the following? Question 9

The different goals of researcher, research sponsor, subjects, and study audience:

Question 10

A researcher conducts a study on identifying potential terrorists and terrorists’ supporters or sympathizers. She then publishes her work and presents it to various community groups around the country. This researcher’s primary research goal most likely is to: Question 11

Bella’smodel of “social science as public philosophy” is reflected in which of the following statements? Social scientists should

Question 12

Which section of a journal article will concisely describe the research problem, the sample, the method, and the findingsQuestion 13

The most unique aspect of preparation of an academic journal article is the: Question 14

Social scientists who believe that there should be a strict separation between the determination of empirical facts as satisfactory or unsatisfactory also often believe that: Question 15

Are the prospects of advancing scientific knowledge impaired by having a report/project goal of influencing social policy or stimulating social action? Consider in your answer both pro and con arguments.



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Discussion board | CJUS 750 – Qualitative Methods of Research | Liberty University


Prompt: For this assignment, you will write an initial post of at least 500-words discussing the following.

  • Articulate the importance and usefulness of focus groups
  • Compare and contrast the role of ethnographies and case studies in data collection.

Discussion Requirements:

Each original thread must have a title-header, a subtitle for each discussion question, 500 words, at least two citations (scholarly articles, and incorporate ideas and citations from all of the required readings and presentations for the assigned module/week), and a Biblical integration. Further, each paragraph should have a minimum of four complete sentences with supporting citation(s) if needed. In addition to the original thread, the student must reply to at least 2 other classmates’ threads. Each reply must be 250 words and include citations from at least 1 scholarly sources. Each thread and reply must follow the current APA (current edition) format.