Discussion board week 1 — introduction: public budgeting as an



In many ways, public sector budgeting is the the ultimate expression of public policy. Budgets allocate the resources that attempt to make public policy ideas reality. While it may be tempting to think of public budgeting as merely the numbers of a financial design, in reality public budgeting reflects nuanced and often contentious decisions related to what services and benefits will be provided to whom, what campaign promises will be broken or kept, who will pay for promised benefits in the form of higher taxes, etc. etc. This week/module provides an introduction to the political nature of public sector budgeting with an overview of the politics of public budgets in Chapter 1 of the Rubin text and a fascinating look at the effects of constituents’ economic interests on the political actions of their representatives.

  • Rubin: Chapter 1 (“minicases” may be skipped)
  • Presentation: Politics and Policy of Public Sector Budgeting – Week 1 Outline
  • Website: Constituents’ Economic Interests and Senator Support for Spending Limitations


Topic: The Political Nature of Public Sector Budgeting

As you have seen from the readings, public sector budgeting often involves several different categories of interested actors who seek to influence the budget process and the resulting budget in a variety of ways. In this week’s discussion board forum, please identify the various actors that may influence public budgeting and explain how they and their various interests contribute to the political nature of public budgeting.


Three part assignment: budgeting comments, standard cost system &

Week 4 Discussions and Required Resources

Three part assignment – All parts must be at least 200 words unless otherwise noted. Please read all attachments and follow ALL instructions.

Part 1: Budgeting Comments

(Exercise 6-13 – Revised) Select one of the following quotes from the text to discuss. Clearly state whether you either agree or disagree with the comment and support your opinion with at least one scholarly resource. Include in your response an explanation of the major purposes of budgeting. Your initial post should be 200-250 words.

“One major criticism of budgeting is that it is used as a ‘cost reduction’ tool rather than a ‘cost control’ tool. The objective of the budget is to control costs at an efficient level of operation.”

“There are generally three benefits from allowing employees to participate in developing the budget: (1) Employees tend to accept the budget as their own plan of action. (2) Participation tends to increase morale among employees and toward management. (3) Employee cohesiveness is increased, and productivity will also increase if dictated by the group norm.”

“Even though budgets are quantitative tools, considerable emotion is connected to budgeting. The individual in control often sees the budget as a means of getting things done. People being controlled often have feelings of anxiety because their success and promotion are tied directly to the budget.”

Part 2:  Standard Cost System

Using Chapter 7 of your text as a reference, define a standard cost and explain what constitutes the components of a standard cost. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a standard cost system and explain under what circumstances a standard cost system is most effective. Your initial post should be 200-250 words.

Part 3: Journal 

Budgets and Employee Morale 

Budgets play a critical role in management activities such as planning, controlling and motivating employees. Used effectively, budgets can help a company achieve its goals and create a productive work environment. In contrast, budgets can also create a hostile work environment. Consider the relationship between budgets and employee morale and then reflect upon your own work experiences. Explain how budgeting was incorporated to achieve the company’s overall goals and objectives. Reflect on whether or not the budgets were effectively applied and whether your experience was positive or negative. Why do employees have so much emotion when it comes to budgets and budgeting decisions?

Required Resource


Schneider, A. (2017). Managerial Accounting: Decision making for the service and manufacturing sectors (2nd ed.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/

· Chapter 6:  Cost Estimation and Cost-Volume-Profit Relationships

· Chapter 7:  Budgeting for Operations Management


Benjamin, A. (2009, February). Arthur Benjamin: Teach statistics before calculus! [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/arthur_benjamin_s_formula_for_changing_math_education