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Draft of the action plans for the unintended birth


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                              Research on the action plans for the unintended birth            


          A pregnancy is given the consideration of being unwanted if it conceived at a time taken not to be right. Unintended pregnancies are always associated with the affected Having negative health and also the outcomes of the economy. In the United States, approximately half of the pregnancies are unintended. Unwanted pregnancy sometimes has impacts on the affected woman’s life course; it can affect their education plan, and as well as their plans regarding work, income potential, and future relationships.

          There are some attentions that have been paid towards preventing pregnancies among girls who are in their adolescent. Four out of five pregnancies in women of the age of 19 below are intended, and three in ten girls get pregnant before the age of 20. Although the pregnancy rate in the teens is on the decline, there are significant racial, ethnic, educational and economic differences remain. In the United States, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic young women have a double chance of being pregnant than their Hispanic White counterparts. According to a recent study, it was revealed that approximately 20 percents of teens that were pregnant were admitted for special education classes.

           If teen pregnancy is planned or not, there are always some notable concerns about public health and societal. Students who acquire unintended pregnancies at adolescent have a higher possibility of dropping out of school; remaining unmarried and most live in absolute poverty ( Levi AJ, Simmonds, Taylor, 2009).. On the hand, adolescent fathers have the likelihood of having low economic stability, income, educational attainment and most probably more turbulent relationship. The study reveals that children who are born to single mothers have more emotional stress as well as problems with their behaviors; they tend to have poor physical health; more likely to enter the juvenile system and are more likely to have poor performance in school.

          However, the most intensively done research on adolescent pregnancy gives some challenge to the view that is currently prevailing, that having to bring up a child as a teen leads to one having a life of poverty and disadvantage (Levi AJ, Simmonds, Taylor). The research instead gives the demonstration that the lives of teens who are mothers and fathers –in comparison to older parents are more likely to be marked by poverty, poor performance in academics, and low expectation before they become parents, these factors gives the explanation of some parts of their later-life disadvantage. These findings give the need for targeting the youths with a disadvantage, with comprehensive interventions that can have a positive change in their lives. This can give them hope of better opportunities and aspirations to the youth and also can offer support to them to set and achieve their goals.

      While there have been continued attention given to the prevention of adolescent pregnancy, study shows that most of the unplanned pregnancies are found among unmarried women of the age group 20-29(National Center for Health Statistics, 2010). This highlights the urgency needed to prevent unintended pregnancies among the youths.

There’s nothing as life changing as getting the biggest surprise of all: You’re pregnant.

           First of all, don’t freak out. It is important to note that, even if you are a first-time mom, or you are carrying a second or a third baby, you can still be able to manage to or event unintended pregnancy in the ways shown bellow. 


          When one is caught in the dilemma of pregnancies that are not planned for they should start taking folic acid. It is estimated that more than half of the pregnancy cases in the U.S. each year are unplanned, according to a study in the journal Contraception and taking folic acid during pregnancy can reduce your baby’s chances of having defects caused by neutral tubes, like Spinal Bifida.

          When one has discovered that they are pregnant in an unplanned manner, they should make a doctor’s appointment. It is of importance to be aware of the time one has taken since conceiving the pregnancy. There is a possibility that one will always be advised on the best way to deal with un-planned pregnancy depending on how old is the fetus. It is advisable to speak with your provider about important blood tests, ultrasounds, genetic screenings and other tests you may need (Levi AJ, Simmonds, Taylor, 2009).

          If you’re unsure of the date of your last menstrual period, or you have irregular or nonexistent periods, an ultrasound can help to pinpoint how far along you are.  It is advisable to take note of possible gain in weight, one should stop smoking, one should be advised on any medications they are taking, and finally they should seek advice on how to manage chronic illnesses during pregnancy.

 It is important also to let it sink in. You might be elated, but it’s normal also to feel shocked, scared, and anxious even angry.  It is important to have a feeling of your emotions as an expectant person. Take some time to deal with your feelings and accept your new reality.  

It is recommended to take action if you have realized you have an unintended pregnancy. This can be best done with by creating an action plan for how you will handle this unknown. Put to thought whether you’ll return to work as usual or the possibility of going back in part time, it is important to think of how long leave you and your spouse will take, or even the possibility of you needing healthcare. It’s also important to review ones budget in order to incorporate new demands. One should consider hiring a babysitter or possibility of having grandparents, as well as children who are old enough to help out. If one is well prepared off, the better off they always feel when the time for the baby’s birth comes.

          It is advisable for the affected to remain positive and avoid thinking of unintended pregnancy as an accident, but they should think of it as a gift. This should be practiced by expectant mothers even if they don’t feel happy about the pregnancy. This is because there are chances of one feeling grateful after the birth of the baby. One should be open to what’s coming, sometimes it is not what is expected– but the unexpected most of the times brings a lot of greatness with it. Instead of being stressed about it, it is worthy to note that whether planned or unplanned, one will never really feel ready. One should believe that everything happens for a reason, and some even happen without us preparing for them.

            In the public health sector, secondary prevention is aimed at the detection of disease before a patient is symptomatic, and usually involves screening tests. Applying public health definitions to secondary prevention of pregnancies that are not planned can lead to the inclusion of interventions. This helps in detecting of pregnancy early enough and assists in the care provision in unplanned pregnancy in the earliest time possible.

As secondary prevention also includes the goal of intervening to avoid a recurrence of the diagnosed medical condition, care would also be directed at the prevention of an unintended pregnancy re-occurring. Furthermore, besides the disease prevention, secondary prevention is also of importance in promoting health through adequate unintended pregnancy options counseling and care coordination. As one applies the public health model of prevention, if a patient undergoes screening, then the resources used for that testing and all the outcomes should be availed to that patient.

 If a woman is screened and she tests positive for pregnancy, she should be given a chance of understanding her options. The options pertaining to pregnancy care and conditions have remained to be an important core competency of the caring offered to nurse women and men who are of the reproductive age (Levi et al., 2009). However, this technical knowhow is not offered at the nursing or primary care training programs. Nurses have some sort of regulation called the Code of Ethics for Nurses, which offers guidance to nurses as they go about their activities.

          Nurses are mandatorily obliged to offer care to their patients, not regarding their health concern or problem, in a manner that shows respect to each patient’s dignity. Therefore, every nurse has a responsibility of either offering a patient with an unplanned pregnancy with the exact information about the options they have or they should give urgent assistance by referring them to someone who will give them with absolute good care.

Additionally, some authors give suggestions that some providers tend to be uncomfortable due to their beliefs pertaining to religion and moral. Moreover, in the United States, there some states that have laws that give the health care providers allowance of turning down their participation in care that involves reproductive health care delivery (Kottke et al, 2010). Prevention is an acknowledged way of reducing the rate of unplanned pregnancy in the United States, but first it should remain focused and coordinated. Primary care providers are strategically placed to start implementing ways of curbing the unplanned pregnancies of all patients who have potential to reproduce.

While many providers may not be able to provide prenatal, adoption or abortion care, coordinated, approaches which are evidence-based for instance, early detection, risk assessment, options counseling, appropriate referrals with return back to primary prevention is necessary to ensure the physical and emotional safety of each patient as well as to evaluate outcomes (Kottke et al, 2010). These networks are entrusted to the nurses who have a mandate of coordinating care and them that act as care mangers.

          The incorporation of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of unplanned pregnancy into primary care is dependent on the goals of the national health which have just been established currently. However, in order to have an integrated model within the broader health system, all three levels of responsible for the prevention of unplanned pregnancy need to coordinate and have a continuous flow of providers and across settings and types of care which are specialized.

          The proposed way of coordinating primary, secondary and tertiary preventions in the primary care for the limitation of unplanned pregnancy is not without its short comes. While the model remains untested, evidence are giving the demonstration that prevention can still be effective in preventing a handsome number of unplanned pregnancies. Primary prevention strategies may have the best empirical evidence, but there is also evidence indicating that a coordinated system of secondary prevention has the potential to improve outcomes through the removal of barriers and the quick return of patients to primary prevention.

          Tertiary prevention is given the definition of an intervention that helps to remove the symptoms of a serious illness and measures aimed at preventing and decreasing the possibility of sequel caused by illness. When tertiary prevention is applied to unplanned pregnancy, it includes diagnosis and the management of later unplanned pregnancies. This is the least developed prevention area for an unplanned pregnancy.

          An unintended pregnancy that is unwanted and not merely mistimed has been found to be at greater risk of poor prenatal outcomes such as maternal depression and infant neglect. Women with a later term unintended pregnancy are likely to be in need of psychosocial assessment, crisis counseling, and/or care coordination to cope with carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term. For women who do not wish to continue their pregnancy, referrals and options regarding termination should be presented in a timely manner as delay in care is associated with increased maternal risk (ANA, 2001).

          The existing evidence of some of the main causes of delayed abortion is the difficulty faced in arranging for payment and finding the most appropriate provider. Therefore providers who and a proper strategy for developed care coordination. Nurses make a great difference in the tertiary prevention of unplanned pregnancy if the undergo proper health education, proper psychological care, and good care coordination.

           Tertiary prevention, therefore, does not work to completion once a pregnant woman has made her choice on the outcome of an unplanned pregnancy. First, proper coordination and making sure the patient gets appropriate care and referral is of much importance. Specialists in the reproductive and primary care providers advocate for a return to the original ways of prevention like the use of contraception immediately after being delivered.  When contraceptives like intrauterine in post-operative time give an increase to the possibility of a woman choosing the best and efficient contraceptive (Kottke et al., 2010).

          Medical, nursing, and the concerned health professionals help in the best way of using the model blueprint to get access to unplanned pregnancy knowledge of prevention and the needed training. Reproductive health, including unplanned pregnancy prevention, has a connection to some other goals for health promotion and should be inclusive in the programs and training that are health related.

          However, if coordinated clinical practice guidelines are excluded, a demonstrated knowledge base, and competency delineation, the ability to incorporate this into educational programs as evidence-based care my face limitations. There should be adequate cooperation in the health professional organizations to encourage practice bulletins and the expectations of competency. With the establishment of these core competencies, educational programs can begin to incorporate directed knowledge and skills that enable clinicians to address the prevention of unplanned pregnancy in ways that are evidenced-based and have cultural competency.





American Nurses Association. (2001). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements,

ANA. New York

        Kottke M, Goedken P, Gidvani M, Cwiak (2010). Factors associated with choosing a long-acting reversible contraceptive method amongst postpartum women in an urban teaching hospital. Abstract] Contraception. 2010;82:183–216. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2010.04.026.

      Levi AJ, Simmonds KE, Taylor (2009). The role of nursing in the management of unintended pregnancy, Nursing Clinics of North America. 2009;44:301–314. doi: 10.1016/j.cnur.2009.06.007.

      National Center for Health Statistics (2010). Key statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention